The Science of Vita Jym
Research suggests that athletes and those who exercise intensely lose many critical vitamins and minerals from training, particularly B vitamins, vitamin C, chromium, selenium, iron, and copper. This is due to a variety of factors, including the loss of minerals in sweat and urine, their increased use for energy production during workouts, and their increased use for recovery and protein synthesis after workouts. Therefore, it's very beneficial that you get at least the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Daily Value (DV) for most minerals, and get far more than these recommendations for most of the vitamins and specific minerals for optimal performance and physique changes.
Conflict of Interest
Many multivitamins sold today actually include minerals that you don't want in a multi. These minerals can inhibit the uptake of important nutrients, like amino acids, as well as other critical minerals.*
The first mineral you don't want in your multi is zinc. Zinc can inhibit the uptake of amino acids! Since it is important to take a multivitamin with a meal, such as breakfast, a multivitamin that includes zinc could interfere with your body's ability to utilize the amino acids in the protein you consumed at breakfast. That could interfere with muscle growth and strength gains, which is the last thing that you want!*
Calcium is another big problem in multivitamin supplements. Calcium interferes with iron and manganese absorption. Unfortunately, calcium is in 99.99% of the multivitamins for sale.
Then there's magnesium, which is also found in most multivitamins. It interferes with manganese and calcium absorption. Both calcium and magnesium should be completely absent from your multivitamin, and they should be taken at a separate time of day.
Phosphorus is the fourth mineral you don't want in your multi. The typical American diet is already rich in phosphorus. Having it in your multivitamin could actually raise phosphorus levels too high. This is problematic because high phosphorous can prevent the conversion of vitamin D to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, in the kidneys. Since this form is the most powerful form of vitamin D and provides the majority of benefits, poor conversion can have negative consequences on bone health and vitamin D's other key benefits, such as better musclestrength and higher testosterone levels.
Vitamins and Minerals That Are MIA
One common vitamin on the MIA list is vitamin K. Recent research suggests that far more people are deficient in vitamin K than originally believed.* Research suggests that supplementing with vitamin K2 alleviates the symptoms of vitamin K deficiency and provides a host of other health benefits. Vitamin K may aid your optimize bone formation and blood clotting.*
Another common missing or under-dosed micronutrient is iodine, which is critical for maintaining healthy thyroid function. Since most of the earth's iodine is found in oceans, iodine deficiency is an important health problem throughout the world. With the wrongful demonization of salt/sodium, few people salt their food today, and many restaurants use far less salt in their dishes. The problem with this is that table salt is iodized to prevent iodine deficiencies. Research suggests that diets that exclude iodized salt, fish, and seaweed have been found to contain very little iodine. In fact, studies suggest that iodine intakes have declined in the U.S., Switzerland, and New Zealand. If your multi doesn't deliver iodine at 100% of the DV or RDA, it's a problem.
Chromium is also absent or severely under-dosed in many multis. This is problematic because the average diet is low in chromium. You could take a separate chromium supplement, but chromium is actually best utilized as part of a multivitamin because uptake is enhanced when chromium is taken with vitamin C.
Copper is another missing or under-dosed mineral. Since higher intakes of zinc can lead to copper deficiency, and you should be certain to get 15 mg of zinc daily separate from your multivitamin, it is important to get an adequate dose of copper (2 mg).
The B vitamins are another problem. You will see them listed on most multivitamins, but the doses are often far too small to offer hard-training individuals any benefit. Any athlete or individual who trains hard should be getting 100 mg of most of the B vitamins, excluding the ones taken in mcg doses.
Other minerals that are also often grossly under-dosed in multis include selenium, molybdenum, and manganese. These minerals and vitamins should be included at a dose that provides at least 100% of the DV or RDA for them.